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中国混凝土与水泥制品协会装饰混凝土分会 >> 幸运彩票app安卓版下载-What is intellecual virtue? 何谓智识美德?

阅览方针与使命

了解辞意和写作目的,结合本身体会考虑并用英文答复问题,论述自己的主意。

1.Among the intellectual virtues, which one are you in possession of? Which one is the most challenging for you?

2.From yourperspective, how can we develop our intellectual virtues? Give an example to help support your argument.

What is intellecual virtue?

何谓智识美德?

We all know what makes for good character in soldiers. We've seen the movies about heroes who display courage, loyalty and coolness under fire. But what about somebody who sits in front of a keyboard all day? Is it possible to display and cultivate charactems官网er if you are just an information age office jockey, alone with a memo or your computer?

幸运彩票app安卓版下载-What is intellecual virtue? 何谓智识美德?

咱们都知道,对战士而言,何为优秀质量的要义。咱们看过的一些电影所描写的英豪人物,在炮火中表现出了勇气、忠实和镇定。但对一天到晚坐在键盘前的人而言,答案又是什么呢?假如你仅仅是信息时代里的一个写字楼职工,成天与备忘录或电脑相伴,那你还有时机展现和培育自己的质量吗?

Of course it is. Even if you are alone in your office, you are thinking. Thinking well under a barrage of information may be a different sort of moral challenge than fighting well under a hail of bullets, but it's a character challenge nonetheless.

当然可以。即便是单独待在工作室里,你也在考虑。和在刀光剑影下好好战役比较,面临许多信息时好好考虑或许是一种天壤之别的品德应战,但它依然不失为对性格的一种应战。

In their 2007 book, "Intellectual Virtues," Robert C. Roberts of Baylor University and W. Jay Wood of Wheaton College list some of the cerebral virtues. We can all grade ourselves on how good we are at each of them.

贝勒大学(Baylor University)的罗伯特C罗伯茨(Robert C. Roberts)和威顿学院(Wheaton College)的W杰伊伍德(W. Jay Wood)在2007年出书的《智识美德》(Intellectual Virtues)一书中,列出了一些智识上的美德。咱们可以逐项给自己打分,看看自己做得怎么样。

First, there is love of learning. Some people are just more ardently curious than others, either by cultivation or by nature.

第一条是爱学习。后天养成的也好,天然生成的也罢,有些人便是比别的一些人具有更激烈的好奇心。

Second, there is courage. The obvious form of intellectual courage is the willingness to hold unpopular views. But the subtler form is knowing how much risk to take in jumping to conclusions. The reckless thinker takes a few pieces of information and leaps to some faraway conspiracy theory. The perfectionist, on the other hand, is unwilling to put anything out there except under ideal conditions for fear that she could be wrong. Intellectual courage is self-regulation, Roberts and Wood argue, knowing when to be daring and when to be cautious. The philosopher Thomas Kuhn pointed out that scientists often simply ignore facts that don't fit with their existing paradigms, but an intellectually courageous person is willing to look at things that are surprisingly hard to look at.

第二条是勇气。智识的勇气有一种显着的表现形式,即乐于持有不受欢迎的观念。但它还有一种更奇妙的表现形式,那便是知道急于下结论会带来多大的危险。鲁莽的考虑者会撷取少数信息,敏捷推导出虚无缥缈的阴谋论。完美主义者则与此相反,假如条件不齐备,她是不肯意下任何结论的,由于忧虑自己或许犯错。罗伯茨和伍德说,智识的勇气是一种自律,知道在什么时候该斗胆、在什么时候该慎重。哲学家托马斯库恩曾指出,科学家们常常简略粗犷地疏忽掉跟既有范式不相符的现实;但一个人假如具有智识的勇气,会乐于去研讨那些反常难于承受的工作。

Third, there is firmness. You don't want to be a person who surrenders his beliefs at the slightest whiff of opposition. On the other hand, you don't want to hold dogmatically to a belief against all evidence. The median point between flaccidit幸运彩票app安卓版下载-What is intellecual virtue? 何谓智识美德?y and rigidity is the virtue of firmness. The firm believer can build a steady worldview on solid timbers but still delight in new information. She can gracefully adjust the strength of her conviction to the strength of the evidence. Firmness is a quality of mental agility.

第三条是坚决。你必定不想做一个听到少许对立的声响就抛弃自己观念的人。另一方面,你必定也不肯罔顾全部依据,死抱着一个观念不放。坚决这一美德就存在于脆弱和固执的中心点上。坚决地持有某些观念的人,可以用牢靠的资料搭建起幸运彩票app安卓版下载-What is intellecual virtue? 何谓智识美德?安定的世界观,但依然乐于触摸新信息。她可以依据依据的力度,高雅地调整自己对某个观念的信任程度。坚决也是一种机警。

Fourth, there is humility, which is not letting your own desire for status get in the way of accuracy. The humble person fights against vanity and self-importance. He's not writing those sentences people write to make themselves seem smart; he's not thinking of himself much at all. The humble researcher doesn't become arrogant toward his subject, assuming he has mastered it. Such a person is open to learning from anyone at any stage in life.

第四条是谦逊,有了它,你就不会让对位置的巴望阻碍自己做出精确的判别。谦逊的人会与虚荣和自大做奋斗。他的笔下不会呈现人们常写的那些让自己看起来很聪明的语句;他底子不是自视甚高的人。谦逊的研讨人员不会在其研讨范畴妄自尊大,想当然地以为自己通晓全部。不管处于人生的哪个阶段,这样的人都乐意向他人学习。

Fifth, there is autonomy. You don't want to be a person who slavishly adopts whatever opinion your teacher or some author gives you. On the other hand, you don't want to reject all guidance from people who know what they are talking about. Autonomy is the median of knowing when to bow to authority and when not to, when to follow a role model and when not to, when to adhere to tradition and when not to.

第五条是自主。你必定不想顺从于导师或哪个作家表达的任何观念。另一当方面,你必定也不肯将那些熟行人士的全部辅导拒之门外。自主的美德在于,知道在什么时候该服从威望,什么时候该坚持己见;什么时候该向典范学习,什么时候该脱节典范;什么时候该遵从传统,什么时候该予以摒弃。

Finally, there is generosity. This virtue starts with the willingness to share knowledge and give others credit. But it also means hearing others as they would like to be heard, looking for what each person has to teach and not looking to triumphantly pounce upon their errors.

最终一条是大方。这种美德的起点是乐意共享常识,并给予他人应有的供认。不过,大方也意味着,在他人期望发出声响时予以倾听,寻觅每个人能为人师表之处,不去洋洋自得地在他人身上纠错。

We all probably excel at some of these virtues and are deficient in others. But I'm struck by how much of the mainstream literature on decision-making treats the mind as some disembodied organ that can be programed like a computer.

在这些美德中,咱们或许都是在某些方面超卓,在另一些方面有所短缺。但让我感受的是,居然有那么多关于拟定决议计划方面的干流文章将思想当成某种脱离个人的东西,能像台计算机那样按编好的程序操作。

In fact, the mind is embedded in human nature, and very often thinking well means pushing against the grain of our nature — against vanity, against laziness, against the desire for certainty, against the desire to avoid painful truths. Good thinking isn't just adopting the right technique. It's a moral enterprise and requires good character, the ability to go against our lesser impulses for the sake 幸运彩票app安卓版下载-What is intellecual virtue? 何谓智识美德?of our higher ones.

实际上,思想蕴含在人道之中,而在许多情况下,好好考虑意味着打败咱们的赋性——抗击虚荣、懒散、对确定性的渴求、对防止苦楚现实的巴望。好的思想不仅仅是选用正确的技巧。它是一种品德勇气,需求杰出的性格,是战胜低一级激动来获取更崇高方针的才能。

Montaigne once wrote that "We can be knowledgeable with other men's knowledge, but we can't be wise with other men's wisdom." That's because wisdom isn't a body of information. It's the moral quality of knowing how to handle your own limitations. Warren Buffett made a similar point in his own sphere, "Investing is not a game where the guy with the 160 I.Q. beats the guy with the 130 I.Q. Once you have ordinary intelligence, what you need is the temperament to control the urges that get other people into trouble."

蒙田曾写道,“即便咱们可以凭仗他人的常识成为学者,但要成为哲人,却只能靠咱们自己的才智。”这是由于,才智并非许多信息的简略调集。它是一种知晓怎么应对本身局限性的品德质量。沃伦巴菲特(Warren Buffett)曾在其范畴中宣布过相似的见地,“出资不是智商160的家伙打败智商130的人。只需你智力正常,你只需求自己的性格可以控制住让他人堕入费事的激动。”

Character tests are pervasive even in modern everyday life. It's possible to be heroic if you're just sitting alone in your office. It just doesn't make for a good movie.

即便是在今世日常日子中,对个人质量的检测也无处不在。就算你仅仅单独坐在工作室里,也或许成为英豪。只不过,这拍不成一部劲爆的电影。

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