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中国混凝土与水泥制品协会装饰混凝土分会 >> 幸运彩票app安卓版下载-What is intellecual virtue? 何谓智识美德?



1.Among the intellectual virtues, which one are you in possession of? Which one is the most challenging for you?

2.From yourperspective, how can we develop our intellectual virtues? Give an example to help support your argument.

What is intellecual virtue?


We all know what makes for good character in soldiers. We've seen the movies about heroes who display courage, loyalty and coolness under fire. But what about somebody who sits in front of a keyboard all day? Is it possible to display and cultivate charactems官网er if you are just an information age office jockey, alone with a memo or your computer?

幸运彩票app安卓版下载-What is intellecual virtue? 何谓智识美德?


Of course it is. Even if you are alone in your office, you are thinking. Thinking well under a barrage of information may be a different sort of moral challenge than fighting well under a hail of bullets, but it's a character challenge nonetheless.


In their 2007 book, "Intellectual Virtues," Robert C. Roberts of Baylor University and W. Jay Wood of Wheaton College list some of the cerebral virtues. We can all grade ourselves on how good we are at each of them.

贝勒大学(Baylor University)的罗伯特C罗伯茨(Robert C. Roberts)和威顿学院(Wheaton College)的W杰伊伍德(W. Jay Wood)在2007年出书的《智识美德》(Intellectual Virtues)一书中,列出了一些智识上的美德。咱们可以逐项给自己打分,看看自己做得怎么样。

First, there is love of learning. Some people are just more ardently curious than others, either by cultivation or by nature.


Second, there is courage. The obvious form of intellectual courage is the willingness to hold unpopular views. But the subtler form is knowing how much risk to take in jumping to conclusions. The reckless thinker takes a few pieces of information and leaps to some faraway conspiracy theory. The perfectionist, on the other hand, is unwilling to put anything out there except under ideal conditions for fear that she could be wrong. Intellectual courage is self-regulation, Roberts and Wood argue, knowing when to be daring and when to be cautious. The philosopher Thomas Kuhn pointed out that scientists often simply ignore facts that don't fit with their existing paradigms, but an intellectually courageous person is willing to look at things that are surprisingly hard to look at.


Third, there is firmness. You don't want to be a person who surrenders his beliefs at the slightest whiff of opposition. On the other hand, you don't want to hold dogmatically to a belief against all evidence. The median point between flaccidit幸运彩票app安卓版下载-What is intellecual virtue? 何谓智识美德?y and rigidity is the virtue of firmness. The firm believer can build a steady worldview on solid timbers but still delight in new information. She can gracefully adjust the strength of her conviction to the strength of the evidence. Firmness is a quality of mental agility.

第三条是坚决。你必定不想做一个听到少许对立的声响就抛弃自己观念的人。另一方面,你必定也不肯罔顾全部依据,死抱着一个观念不放。坚决这一美德就存在于脆弱和固执的中心点上。坚决地持有某些观念的人,可以用牢靠的资料搭建起幸运彩票app安卓版下载-What is intellecual virtue? 何谓智识美德?安定的世界观,但依然乐于触摸新信息。她可以依据依据的力度,高雅地调整自己对某个观念的信任程度。坚决也是一种机警。

Fourth, there is humility, which is not letting your own desire for status get in the way of accuracy. The humble person fights against vanity and self-importance. He's not writing those sentences people write to make themselves seem smart; he's not thinking of himself much at all. The humble researcher doesn't become arrogant toward his subject, assuming he has mastered it. Such a person is open to learning from anyone at any stage in life.


Fifth, there is autonomy. You don't want to be a person who slavishly adopts whatever opinion your teacher or some author gives you. On the other hand, you don't want to reject all guidance from people who know what they are talking about. Autonomy is the median of knowing when to bow to authority and when not to, when to follow a role model and when not to, when to adhere to tradition and when not to.


Finally, there is generosity. This virtue starts with the willingness to share knowledge and give others credit. But it also means hearing others as they would like to be heard, looking for what each person has to teach and not looking to triumphantly pounce upon their errors.


We all probably excel at some of these virtues and are deficient in others. But I'm struck by how much of the mainstream literature on decision-making treats the mind as some disembodied organ that can be programed like a computer.


In fact, the mind is embedded in human nature, and very often thinking well means pushing against the grain of our nature — against vanity, against laziness, against the desire for certainty, against the desire to avoid painful truths. Good thinking isn't just adopting the right technique. It's a moral enterprise and requires good character, the ability to go against our lesser impulses for the sake 幸运彩票app安卓版下载-What is intellecual virtue? 何谓智识美德?of our higher ones.


Montaigne once wrote that "We can be knowledgeable with other men's knowledge, but we can't be wise with other men's wisdom." That's because wisdom isn't a body of information. It's the moral quality of knowing how to handle your own limitations. Warren Buffett made a similar point in his own sphere, "Investing is not a game where the guy with the 160 I.Q. beats the guy with the 130 I.Q. Once you have ordinary intelligence, what you need is the temperament to control the urges that get other people into trouble."

蒙田曾写道,“即便咱们可以凭仗他人的常识成为学者,但要成为哲人,却只能靠咱们自己的才智。”这是由于,才智并非许多信息的简略调集。它是一种知晓怎么应对本身局限性的品德质量。沃伦巴菲特(Warren Buffett)曾在其范畴中宣布过相似的见地,“出资不是智商160的家伙打败智商130的人。只需你智力正常,你只需求自己的性格可以控制住让他人堕入费事的激动。”

Character tests are pervasive even in modern everyday life. It's possible to be heroic if you're just sitting alone in your office. It just doesn't make for a good movie.




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